這是 達醫曉護 的第 3123 篇文章

六月齡以下的嬰兒

六個月以下的嬰兒隻需要喝母乳或嬰兒配方奶,母乳和配方奶粉含有嬰兒生長發育所需的各種營養素。

640 (6).png六月齡到十二月齡的嬰兒

從六個月起,你可以給母乳喂養和配方奶粉喂養的嬰兒喝少量室溫的白開水。如果你的寶寶在頭12個月裡喝瞭除水、母乳或配方奶粉以外的飲料,會影響寶寶獲得足夠的必需營養物質。

640.webp (47).jpg一歲的嬰兒

到寶寶1歲大的時候,可以嘗試喝無添加的巴氏殺菌全脂鮮牛奶瞭。如果孩子是配方奶喂養的,而且輔食攝入營養均衡的話,那麼1歲後可以不需要配方奶粉瞭。不過,2歲以下的兒童不建議使用低脂牛奶,因為嬰幼兒需要全脂牛奶中的營養素來滿足他們的能量、生長和發育需求。當然,母乳喂養可以在1歲後繼續,隻要媽媽和寶寶都適應繼續母乳而且母乳量還是能滿足寶寶需要的話。

除瞭母乳,牛奶和配方奶以外,寶寶的健康飲料還是白水。如果想給孩子喝牛奶替代品來取代牛奶或配方奶,比如豆奶,椰奶,杏仁奶,燕麥奶,最好先咨詢兒科醫生。

640 (8).png幼兒和兒童

對於幼兒和兒童,白水和牛奶是最好的飲料。

在一天中喝足夠的水可以讓身體保持充足的水分。在炎熱的天氣或孩子奔跑玩耍很多的時候尤其重要。另外,多喝水也能幫助孩子防止產生便秘。所以鼓勵孩子多喝水是這個階段比較重要的任務,尤其是對於不愛喝白水的孩子。以下是一些鼓勵孩子喝水的小技巧:

讓傢裡的每個成員都把白水作為他們的主要飲料。當孩子看到大人都喝白水,他們很可能也會有樣學樣。

帶孩子外出時,隨身攜帶裝滿的水瓶。

傢裡的桌上隨時有水可以喝,特別是在點心或用餐時間。

可以嘗試在白水裡加入冰塊,新鮮或冰凍水果片,有天然清甜的果香,對孩子更有吸引力。還讓孩子參與一起選擇和制作,比如蘋果,檸檬,甜橙,草莓,菠蘿,薄荷葉等,增加喝水的興趣。

640.webp (48).jpg不健康的飲料有哪些?

1. 果汁

果汁含糖量高而且膳食纖維少。兒童的日常飲食中不需要再給予額外的糖,恰恰相反,他們需要膳食纖維。而且兒童來說,最好吃整個的水果,喝普通白水或牛奶。水比果汁好,因為它能解渴,而且不含任何多餘的糖。

如果孩子喜歡喝果汁,盡量限制在每天半杯。你可以嘗試著在規定特定的時間或活動中喝果汁,以限制果汁攝入。例如周末,外出就餐,野餐,參加聚會等。另外,還可以把果汁和一些水或冰混合,甚至偷偷地放進一些蔬菜。記住,要使用攪拌機而不是榨汁機,這樣可以使水果纖維留在果汁中。

640.webp (49).jpg2. 軟飲料、果汁飲料、運動飲料、能量飲料、調味乳、調味礦泉水

軟飲料、果汁飲料、運動飲料和能量飲料都含有大量的糖分,幾乎沒有營養成分。這些飲料可能會取代其他更有營養的食物和飲料,並增加孩子超重,肥胖和蛀牙的風險。

有些飲料還含有咖啡因,這會讓你的孩子極度興奮,然後精疲力盡。同時咖啡因也會影響孩子的睡眠。

另外,調味乳和牛奶飲料中的糖分含量很高,所以最好給孩子提供純牛奶。同樣,果味的礦泉水也可能含糖量高。

640 (9).png3.咖啡和茶

茶和咖啡中含有咖啡因,會影響孩子的睡眠、行為和發育。一些花草茶可能含有對兒童健康有害的化合物。如果想給孩子喝花草茶,最好先請咨詢兒科醫生。

640 (10).png要點

六個月以下的嬰兒隻需要喝母乳或嬰兒配方奶。

白水和牛奶是12個月以上兒童(包括青少年)的最佳飲料。

不健康飲料包括軟飲料、果汁飲料、果汁,果味礦泉水,運動飲料、能量飲料、茶和咖啡。

甜飲料會增加兒童超重、肥胖和蛀牙的風險。

Healthy drinks under 6 months

Under six months, babies need only breastmilk or infant formula. Breastmilk and formula contain the nutrients babies need for growth and development.

Healthy drinks at 6-12 months

You can give breastfed and formula-fed babies small amounts of boiled tap water from a cup from six months on. If your baby has drinks other than water, breastmilk or formula in the first 12 months, it can stop your baby from getting enough essential nutrients.

Healthy drinks at 12 months

After 12 months, you can give your baby pasteurised, unflavoured, full-fat cow’s milk to drink if they’re eating a balanced diet. If your child has been formula fed and they’re eating a balanced diet, your child probably won’t need formula after 12 months. Reduced-fat milks aren’t recommended for children under two years. This is because babies and toddlers need the nutrients in full-fat milk to meet their energy, growth and development needs. You can keep breastfeeding after 12 months for as long as it suits you and your child.

Your baby can still drink water other than milk or formula. If you’re thinking of giving your child dairy alternatives as drinks, such as soy milk, coconut milk, almond milk, or oat milk, it’s best to talk to your paediatrician first.

Healthy drinks for toddlers, preschoolers and older children

For toddlers and older children, water and milk are the best drinks.

Your child can stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water throughout the day. This is especially important in hot weather or when your child is running around a lot. Drinking plenty of water can also help your child avoid constipation.

Encouraging your child to drink more water is very important task for this stage, especially for those who does not like water. Here are some tips to encourage your child to drink and enjoy water:

•Get everyone in the family drinking water as their main drink. When your children see you doing it, they’re likely to do it too.

•Take filled water bottles when you go out with your child.

•Have water on the table at meals and snack times.

• You could try adding ice cubes or pieces of frozen or fresh fruit to make it more appealing for your child, such as apple, lemon, orange, strawberry, pineapple,even mint leaves.

Unhealthy drinks:

Fruit juice

Fruit juices have high levels of sugar and don’t have much fibre. Children don’t need extra sugar – but they do need fibre.It’s best for children to eat whole fruit and drink plain water or milk. Water is better than fruit juice, because it satisfies thirst and doesn’t have any extra sugar.

If your child drinks juice, try to limit it to ½ a cup per day. You could try giving fruit juice at a particular time or activities to help you stick to this limit. For example, weekend, dining out, picnic, parties.

It’s a good idea to mix the fruit juice with some water or ice, and even sneak in a few vegetables. Mixing the fruit in a blender instead of a juicer will keep the fruit fibre in the juice.

Soft drinks, cordial, sports drinks, energy drinks, flavoured milk

Soft drinks, cordial, sports drinks and energy drinks have a lot of added sugar and virtually no nutrients for your child’s diet. These drinks can take the place of other more nourishing foods and drinks and can increase your child’s risk of overweight, obesity and tooth decay.

Some of these drinks also contain caffeine, which could make your child extremely excited, then exhausted. Caffeine can also affect your child’s sleep.

Flavoured milk and milk drinks are high in added sugar, so it’s better to offer your children plain milk instead. Flavoured mineral waters can also be high in added sugar.

Tea and coffee

Tea and coffee contain caffeine, which can affect your child’s sleep, behaviour and development. Some herbal teas might contain compounds that can be harmful for children. Check with your paediatrician if you want to offer herbal tea to your child.

Key points

•Under six months, babies need only breastmilk or infant formula.

•Water and cow’s milk are the best drinks for children over 12 months, including teenagers.

•Unhealthy drinks include soft drinks, cordials, fruit juices, mineral waters, energy drinks, sports drinks, tea and coffee.

•Sweet drinks can increase children’s risk of overweight, obesity and tooth decay.

作者:澳大利亞墨爾本大學醫學院兒科博士

百匯醫療(中國)兒科醫師

蔣本然