北宋 王詵《繡櫳曉鏡圖》

溪山清遠宋式條桌,復現自北宋王詵《繡櫳曉鏡圖》。

This Song-style table is replicated from a painting by Wang Shen of the Song Dynasty.

在宋畫中,可以見到眾多與此相近的桌子款式。桌面有寬有窄,窄長的桌更多是作為邊桌使用。其形制從唐代的壺門桌和榻逐步演變而來,始見於宋代。

Tables of similar styles can often be seen in paintings from the Song Dynasty. Their forms were settled during this time, developed from the box-shaped tables and beds popular in the Tang Dynasty.

南宋 佚名《十八學士圖》局部

桌子的形制極簡極素,幾乎無可再減。桌面平展,桌面以下四個側面筆直落下,直到腿足落地,四個側立面均是平面,因而也叫四面平桌,或四平桌,以與案形結體的傢具相區分。

The table is so succinct that no part can be removed without affecting its structure. The table-top extends unhampered and make a sharp turn at the four legs. All four side facades are on one plane, and tables of such a structure are distinguished in name from another type (that have inset legs, which are called AN).

四平桌的桌面與下部,以一種不易察覺而實際較為復雜的方式連接:

The table-top and the part beneath it are combined in an inconspicuous but complicated way:

桌面的大邊、抹頭,先與桌面攢邊相接,此時邊抹、面板、面板下的穿帶,構成瞭一個完整的部分。支撐上述桌面部分的,是一副架子。架子的制作是腿足上部不造束腰,在頂端長短榫之下直接格肩造榫,並在兩面各留出一個斷面為半個銀錠形的掛銷,以備與牙條上的槽口套掛。四根牙條和四條腿足拍合後,便形成瞭架子。然後,架子上再安裝上述的桌面部分。

First, four frame members lock up the top board, with the clamps mounted underneath. This is the top part, to be supported by the frame. Legs join aprons to form the frame with mitre joints. A half-ingot-shaped peg is chiselled out on both sides to join with the mortises on the aprons. The frame is thus formed, and above it the top part is mounted.

王世襄先生《明式傢具研究》一書指出:“這種造法,牙條用料宜有一定的高度和厚度,並須在牙條上皮栽榫,邊抹底面鑿眼,輔助四足上端的榫卯,使桌面和支架扣緊貼嚴,不生縫隙。”

In his book Classic Chinese Furniture: Ming and Early Qing Dynasties, Wang Shixiang said that “such a practice requires the aprons to be of enough thickness, and tenons and mortises are required respectively on the aprons and the frame members, to serve as extra braces for the strength of the legs, and also to combine the top part and the frame in a seamless way.

圖片引自 王世襄《明式傢具研究》

宋式條桌 局部

因為“此結構要求牙條有一定的高度和厚度”,所以,針對不同體量、長短的桌子,大如兩米多的長桌,小如僅可置一花瓶的香幾,就要求設計者把握拿捏,權衡的結果,既實現結構的穩固,又使得傢具整體看上去骨肉勻停。

The thickness of the aprons requires the designer/craftsman to balance it with the size of the table, so that the finished work is firm enough to serve for years, while also looks elegant and well-proportioned.

我們在宋畫中所看到的此類桌子,看上去輕便柔順,氣韻清舒。

Tables that appear in the Song-Dynasty paintings look graceful and well-extended.

腿足方材,越接近地面,越逐漸收斂,卻瘦而不羸,而是筆直堅挺。

The legs are of a square section, and turn slimmer as they go downwards. In spite of looking weak, they hold firm and straight.

足部絕不直接落地,而必要在落地前,做各種造型的變化。在明代,足部的典型造型是或高或矮的馬蹄足,在宋代,足部的造型變化更豐富,比較常見的是雲足、如意足等。

The feet never touch the ground without some motifs. In the Ming Dynasty, the typical motif is the so-called horse-hoof, high or low. In the Song Dynasty, motifs are more various, but the most often-seen ones are of a scroll or Ruyi design.

宋式條桌 局部

宋畫和明畫中,偶見足部不做造型而直接落地的“改良”制式,打破瞭一直以來發展演變的范式。從畫作效果看,似乎稍顯牽強;存世實物中也很少見,但偶見一二改良成功的案例。

Occasionally seen in a painting is an “improved” style of feet, which diverts somewhat from the trail of development of Chinese furniture. More often than not, the achieved result is not successful.

明 杜堇《聽琴圖》局部

古畫中此桌,一般不作為書房的畫案、書案等重器,而是出現在文人士大夫或仕女生活中更輕松、閑適的場合,如好友相聚,或獨自恬然燕居,或對鏡梳妝打扮。

In Song and Ming paintings, such tables are often not used as a major piece in the study. They appear mostly in the lives of scholars, bureaucrats and their wives and concubines on more relaxed and personal occasions, such as when with friends, in solitude, or in front of a mirror.

畫中更狹長的條桌,如文首所展示,更多是作為邊桌使用,靠墻面擺放。宋畫中對這種用法表現得很少,明代版畫中可以見到。

There are also tables that are more narrow and longish, as is shown in the beginning of this article. These are typically used as side tables, against a wall. Though not depicted in Song paintings, the usage can be found in Ming woodblock paintings.

此桌形制雖然極其簡素,構造看似並不復雜,但不見於表現更為鄉野、市井的宋畫之中。它平展飄逸、輕揚向上的氣息,使它不見煙火氣,而更覺清氣撲面。

Though seemingly of a simple structure and thus easy to make, the table is not seen in paintings depicting lives of the ordinary class. Its air of ethereality and delicacy does not blend it well with the more down-to-earth side of life.

明仇英梧竹書堂圖

明 文徵明 滸溪草堂圖

明 謝環 香山九老圖

「溪山清遠」是從中國藝術中汲取生活的意境,創造當代生活裡中國獨有的精神空間,讓中國生命哲學和審美中的真意和詩性,重新成為當代生活的樣式。

「溪山清遠」通過創造傢具器物來建設這種生活裡的詩意,去復現我們生活中丟失的桃花源。這是一種心靈的應答和領悟,「溪山清遠」就像關於生活的作品,重新把我們置入內心的山水和心靈的景觀中。